THE CANAL PROJECT
By NY LENG

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Ny Leng

The Canal Project: Prek Tnout
Implementation

"Prek Tnout river be extended to the sea by digging through Kaong Sre Ambel"

Study and Research Work Carried Out and  Written By: Mr. Ny Leng

 

"As building nation, Cambodian should measure its effectiveness; not sufficiency" Unanimous
 


The Study on Extensive Excavation and Depth Enhancement of Prek Thnout River

To Let Water Flows into the Sea to Reduce Flood.

The study on extensive excavation and depth enhancement of Prek Thnout River to let water flows into the sea is a study to fill out the shortage of some important tests which is not clearly confirmed the theory of valuable objective in the second study article on February 2002, namely on tests as follows:

  1. Technical trait of the head of Ta Khmao River- Bassac River, point 1269.02-494.04

  2. The highest-lowest height of water exactly at the head of Prek Thnout River (Ta Khmao) in both seasons.

  3. Technical trait of the affluent of Tonle Sap Lake exactly at Prek Pnov, point 1290.02-484.02

  4. Technical trait of the Mok Campoul Canal exactly at the joining  harbor (Brachum Piam), point 1291.04-484.04

  5. Technical trait of the harbor of Prek Koy and Mekong River, point 310.01-500.04

  6. Dividing a number of working sites and place where may need to be excavated first.

  7. The amount of excavated dirt that need to be excavated and transported to fill in another places.

  8. The end of dead-end of Prek Trang Khaoung or Sre Ambel Trang (open sea)

  9. The capacity of Canal used as only national and international level.

  10. Creating the alluvial soil for the benefit of agricultural field.

Before describing these tests, we would like to show the flood in Holland country (Pays Bas) in which cause of Rhine River and sea. This country is located in European Continent at the north beach. General aspects of this country, most areas are lower than sea 4, 5 to 6.70 meter. Frequently, snow storm has speed between 180 to 200 km/h that causes huge waves from 8 to 12 meter. These problems always cause wildlife, human and material destruction permanently more than our country.

The resolution to these problems, they made the great wall to protect their country from wave as well as building the biggest dike in a hundred of kilometers that is called Data Plan, for protecting country from these historical dangers. At the present time, the Kingdom of Holland which is known as LA HAYE City by Cambodian absolutely protects against flood.

This information is jus shown that our Cambodian don’t be disappointed to the generally geographical aspects of our own country because there is a resolution to the problem to be exempt from natural disaster by any means even long or short-run depending on technical-political will. For this reason, our Cambodia has only been flooded by rainwater, Mekong River but generally the surface of the country is higher than sea (in front of Royal Palace, higher than sea from 7 to 8 meter) while the Kingdom of Holand had been flooded by river, rainwater, as well as sea they still found the resolution as mentioned above.

Additionally, it is proven that the Kingdom of Cambodia was rarely taken place by earthquake, once had happened in 1954 but not causes any destruction. Beside this event, eventually, there were no any volcanoes and other discoveries other than drought and flood. If we try to keep away from these events, Cambodia truly grows increasingly. While the drought means that if Tonle Sap Lake and other lakes completely become dried up, then after Cambodia will exactly face devastation by the sunlight and the national aquatic fish will be extinct.

The vision on the first and second study on February 2002 generally shows that there was no any oppositions by all sectors even a small one. Therefore, this study project has been classified as a positive unique so that we can carry on to study on the third time finding the definite form and shape to reduce the weight of a load of the Royal Government of Cambodia to have basic theory to make it possible to take into consideration in national and international framework and it can be named comparable with the second Angkor Wat in this recent century which is a living conditions of nation.

Working Site 1, related to the working site dividing plan that needs to be excavated first is to begin excavation from Compong Teok Koaung, point 1225.01-377, the surface of land area is higher than sea..................m, connecting to the point 1230.383, height..............m, cross Compong Sela field on trace of forest warden of the French Colonial Regime, point 1237.02-395, height..............m, point 1238-399.03, height..............m, point 1240.01-404.04, height..............m, point 1241.406.03, height..............m, here need to build 100m bridge, exactly at the canal cross the national road No. 4, this point is not considered as meandering road, connecting to the point 1243-412, height..............m, accomplishing working site 1 that have 6 meanders completely need to excavated, excavated dirt will be transported through mobile train, calculate the ......................cubic meter to fill in other place according to the implementing plan.

Working Site 2, begin to the point 124.04-416.04, height..............m, building 100m bridge, connecting to the point 1247.03-436, height..............m, going beyond to the point 1255.04-440.01, height..............m, the working site is getting done here. There are two long meanders in the distance of 34 km which is completely excavated and each working sites will be calculated on the excavated dirt that needs to transport out of the working site.

Working Site 3, up to the point 1256.03-441.04, height..............m, point 1259.03-445, height..............m, canal across the provincial road No. 31, point 1259.03-447.01, height..............m, building 100 m bridge connecting to the point 1259.03-448.03, height..............m, point 1261-452, height..............m, point 1261.01-457.02, height..............m, building 100 m bridge of the divided road of the provincial road No. 20, point 1262.02-460, height..............m, going beyond to the point 1264-460.03, height..............m, building 100 m bridge of the provincial road No. 20, point 1264.02-461.01, height..............m, canal across the provincial road No. 51 and cross Prek Thnout River, especially it is a place where source of rainwater falling off the mountain and flows into the sea, expanding the old bridge to 100 m, point 1265.01-463, height..............m, having 7 meanders, 26 kilometer-long working site needs to be completely excavated.

Working Site 4, begin to the point 1265.02-463.02, height..............m, point 1266.02-464.01, height..............m, in this point, Prek Mok Compoul meets with Prek Thnout River and flows into the sea as mentioned above. Crossing the national road No. 4, point 1271.01-46, height..............m, building 100 m bridge, crossing the provincial road No. 21, point 1273-469, height..............m, crossing the provincial road No. 42, point 1278.04-473.02, height..............m, crossing the railroad, point 1279.03-473.04, height..............m, building 100 m bridge, connecting to the point 1282.03-476.03, height..............m, meets with Ou khsach Canal with always having water, having 6 meanders, 26 kilometer-long working site needs to be completely excavated.

Connecting as a canal in the lake in the distance of 14 km, extra excavation from the point 1283.01-476.01, point 1283-476.03, point 1284 -477.02, point 1284.03-478.02 Ou Khsach Canal separates into two parts and it can be organized as evadable station, connecting to the point 1286-478.01, it is the beginning point across the long way of Ou Khsach Canal, point 1286.02-478.04,  point 1287.02-479.01 meets with Prek Pnov Canal, at the end of Ou Khsach Canal, point 1288.02-481.01, crossing the flooded field in the rainy season in the distance of 2 km, crossing the provincial road No. 20 which is the way up to the Ba Seth Mountain, Building 200 m curved bridge, point 1289.01-484.02 exactly at the canal across the national road No. 5. The bridge can be built unless otherwise all working sites underneath are done.

Crossing the branch of Tonle Sap in the distance of 500-meter width, during the dry season, it consists of water on the bottom of the river............m. The bottom of the man-made canal must act in accordance with this basic measurement to prevent water from flowing all out of Tonle Sap. During the rainy season, the water goes up beyond the edge of the river................m, other side of the river needs an extra excavation on the flooded field in the rainy season in the distance of 1-kilometer, point 1290.04-484.03 in which is called as (Bra Chum Piam) in order to meet with Prek Muk Compoul that is the source of Mekong River. This point of Prek Muk Compoul has 40-meter width, 7-meter depth. During the dry season, it consists of water on the bottom of the Prek 0.4-meter. This measurement was made on March 26, 2007.

Point 1291.04-484.04, Ou Khsach Canal consists of 5-long meanders, 13-short meanders because it is a system between canal and river from nature. For the implementing plan, all excavated dirt was excavated on the bottom of the lake should not be leaved it behind (Don’t organize the levee of the canal) excavated dirt should be transported away from the lake to keep the lake still deep.

Back to the working site 5 or Sre Ambel site in the distance of 23-kilometer needs an extra excavation according to the meandering stream of the river starting up from high spot exactly at the point 1225.01-377 to the plain, Kaoung River has...............meter width,.................meter depth, point 1225.01-375.03, point 1222-371.01 connecting from this point until the course of Kaoung River can be accessible for water flows into the sea by crossing the point 1231-366, ferry dock of Sre Ambel, peri-urban dwellers of Sre Ambel, point 1230-364 connecting to the end of Kaoung River in 16-kilometer length which consists of 19 small islands along the course of the river until the deep-open sea. It is considered just only at the point 1223-354. We classified this working site 5 but it is not self-important.

Back to the working site of Prek Thnout River, working site 6, has...............meter width, ........meter depth, start departing from Ta khmao called Prek Thnout River or Ta khmao which splits from Basac River at the point 1269.02-494.04, the state of the land area has................meter height, at this point of Basac River has 500-meter width, the water goes up too high..................meter, the water goes down beyond the edge of the river....................meter, during the dry season, it consists of water on the bottom of the river in ......................meter. This season of subsidence of water shows the equality of the sea surface (Kaoung).

Prek Thnout River, above, in town has two bridges. One was made of metal.................-meter length,..................meter width, point 1269.02-494.03, the second one was made of stone built during the French Colonial Regime in....................meter length,......................meter width, point 1269.02-494.01, the last one built on the point 1264.03-482.04, These three bridges should be removed and build a 200-meter curve bridge.

During the rainy season, the water goes up in a completely full of view and flows adjacent to the national road No. 3 at the point of Compong Kantoul, point 1265-479, land area has....................meter, at the side of the head of the river, during the dry season, the water goes down beyond the edge of the river....................meter, along the course of the river until Compong Kantoul consists of a small pool in .....................meter from the bottom of the river, the working site 6 is divided into two stages, this is the first stage, an extra excavation in accordance with the meanders of the river in 33-kilometer distance. (This location is called Compong Toul or Kraing Ponre)

Working Site 7, across the national road No. 3 at the point of agricultural dike bridge of Compong Toul, point 1265-479, the bridge has……………meter width, …………….meter length, ……………meter height should be removed and  build a 200-meter curve bridge. While the dike should be also improved by additional excavation along the course of the river to the railroad crossing the point 1266-476.03, ……………..meter height, providing an extra study on this bridge by connecting to the system of the working site 4, point 1266.02-464.01, ………..meter height, the second stage has 30-kilometer long in accordance with all meanders, therefore, this working site is really difficult to work on because its geography has many different low-high locations comparable to the surface of the sea. (The depth of the bottom of the Prek Thnout River must be equal to the bottom of the Basac River).

This working site is not considered as meander because the river has lots of short-meanders. In the future, this river should be additional excavated in a straight line, then after it will provide a lot of benefits. As we mentioned above, extensive excavation and depth enhancement of Prek Thnout River is the key objectives to help in reducing the flood in nation-wide to contribute to the development of agricultural sector, organizing the new land, traffic, tourism, mutually supportive and complementary operation with LAO country to transport goods out-in the country via Kratie and Stung Treng, talking about LAO country is referred to the donation and distribution from international community both budget sector to help the management field of LAO and also capital partial payment of Cambodia.

Prek Muk Compoul receives the source of water of Prek Koy splitting from the Mekong River; point 1310.01-500.04, next to it has a lot of small canals. During the rainy season, all of these water sources flow so powerfully. Crossing the national road No. 6 down to the Tonle Sap Lake such as Troh bridge at the point………………and the maximum percentage fo water source flows into between the corner road and Prek Leap. In this separating point, it has short-long 29 bridges, the current power of water strongly flows into the branch of Tonle Sap both in the straight direction and also falling off Prek Muk Compoul. Some current water flows along the man-made canal in a straight direction to the sea via Brachum Piam when the canal is appeared.

This project planning has a tone of work size and it is in a difficulty because the canal crosses the height of plateau is more than 100-meter in some locations which was requested. It can help the agricultural sector. Cambodian people make a living depending on agricultural field, if there are some locations were flooded, during the dry season for some locations no water at all they cultivate crops just only one time, some are accessible for two times combined with hard work, consequently, we decide to submit this test for the Royal Government of Cambodia, intellectuals all ages taking into consideration.

The issues of Tonle Sap Lake becomes dried up from day to day, national aquatic fishes are in the least quantity, references during the French Colonial Regime shows that during the rainy season, Tonle Sap has 19-meter depth, another documents show that it has 16-meter. If this figure is true showing that within the past century, its depth was absolutely shallow. This natural disaster can be improved if we have enough canals to slow down this drying up. As the result, the water can take the alluvial soil to another place in the time we don’t rehabilitate the river yet. However, we must completely improve it.

Please take into consideration of 19 bridges. Two of 19 bridges are bridges for train. The four normal bridges are being used and study on technical trait of the bridge that have to build up in the shape of curve bridge or smooth bridge depending on the depth of the canal to allow the middle-class ship can be accessible.

In contrast, if the geographical aspects of agricultural dike of Compong Toul is not favorable for site, the working site of Prek Muk Compoul can be used as instead or try to overcome on both sides. It shows that if we stop temporally at working site of Prek Thnout in the distance of 63-kilometer, consists of 4 bridges, one bridge for train, it also can help to reduce the weight of a load. Having sufficient budget on it, we should work on it again.

Having water source-current water, we always think of the hydropower. In this regard, if we have man-made canal in the future, we need to take into consideration on this sector. We need to collect all water sources that falls off the mountain such as Prek Thnout River as mentioned in the working site 4, point 1201-463, Steorng Sre Khlong , point 1245-423, Steorng Chral, point 1237-394.03, Steorng Chhay, point....................Prek Compong Leu, point 1233-388, building site also need to study on the edge of the Compong Leu Canal, point 1232-377, 1227.01-374.04, These sources are used for only dry season.

Hydropower can be built only one together. During the rainy season, let it run all. During the dry season, let some runs according to the water power. Based on this fact, at the point of canal splits (twin) is possible to build the middle-class hydropower. It doesn’t affect the traffic of the ship. Many countries take advantage of energy of sunlight, wind, water. While the man-made canal really doesn’t have waterfall but it has water flow.

Private enterprise and private sector should be interested in this issue. The study is included the hydropower program but it is not considered as a rush. Flood is the life and death issue. Agricultural sector is the first stage, Tonle Sap Lake rehabilitation is the second stage (Tonle Sap needs to be rehabilitated in 3.50-meter to 4-meter. Additionally, we need to think of dry season.

Information Synthesis: Two master working sites are Prek Muk Compoul and Prek Thnout River divided into 8 small working sites.

The working site of Prek Muk Compoul has 35-kilometer distance, from the joining point of Prek Thnout River, point 1265.01-463 to the joining harbor (Brachum piam) of Prek Phnov, point 1290.02-484.02.

  • The working site of Prek Muk Compoul 2- Prek Koy has 35-kilometer distance, the joining harbor (Brachum piam) of Prek Phnov, point 1290.04-484.03   until the bank of Mekong River, point 1310.01-500.04.

  • The working site of Prek Thnout River 1 and 2 have 63-kilometer distance, from the head of Takmao bridge to the joining point at Prek Muk Compoul, point 1265.01-463, connecting from this point is the course of the same canal until the sea.

  • Completely length of working site from the joining harbor (Brachum piam) of Prek Phnov, point 1290.02-484.02 to the sea has 158-kilometer distance without counting the working site of Prek Thnout River and the working site of Prek Muk Compoul 2-Prek Koy.

  • Need to have completely excavation in 110-kilometer distance (completely excavation of Suy Aye Canal in 158-kilometer distance)

  • An extra excavation along the course of the river, canal, lake in 48-kilometer distance.

  • Excavated dirt from all working sites has....................cubic meter, (Suy Aye Canal 100-million cubic meter)

  • According to the documents of Suy Aye Canal, Published in 1990

  • Using map scale 1/100,000 in 1995-1998

  • According to the documents of Mr. Alber Ptyai during the French Colonial Regime 1945

  • According to the documents of Serk Sborn University in 1986

  • According to the documents of Agricultural Engineering of Mr. TAN Kim Huan during the Monarchy Society in 1960.

Further information (Suy Aye Canal), has 52-meter width, in general, it is straight across the lake in 365-meter distance, its depth has 22-meter to 67-meter, at the point of the lake has 160-kilometer distance in accordance with meanders of the lake which is completely excavated in the distance of 158-kilometer beside this just an existing lake.

Excavated dirt from excavation has 100-million cubic meters; expense almost 400-million franc, duration of operation is 15 years. The possibility of building is referred to the course of the canal across the smooth surface and excavated dirt has large amount compared to our working site which is exceed nearly one time if the width of the canal has the same size.

As we see the technical trait of the Suy Aye Canal, its width, length, depth and passing location as well as capacity in serving for the Europe-Asia continent. Despite the fact that the project planning is not confirmed about capability yet. On the other hand, the study is not regarded as a fully accurate:

(1) it is just only a positive signal if this request becomes an achievement and making it possible for Cambodian to have employments, reducing the flood for the benefit of agricultural sector

(2) this study article has been clarified just only on flood issue but it has not addressed on some area no water at all.

It is convinced that they exactly can find the resolution to the problem depending on their understanding, education. We spent our own time for this project planning more than 12 years, moving on, we would like to ask for permission to organize an association located in Phnom Penh to end this operation, especially taking into consideration on all shapes of bridges.

Representing Sign:

Representing the starting up and ending each sites

Representing the short-long meanders of the canal

Representing the alluvial soil for agricultural sector

Representing the draft study on mobile hydropower in the future

(1) Full word refers to dry season; does the middle-class ship can leave the sea for Mekong River?

(2) As we know, we had never seen Cambodian possess the Livestock farms because during the rainy season, they can’t provide the grass and land for cows, buffalos and horses. One family consists of yoke of oxen is absolutely difficult.

Doing the research remains excavated dirt that needs to be excavated, project budget for expense, term of operation which is not limited because many concepts may rise even close or far from the project planning. Therefore, the Royal Government of Cambodia plays an important role to make a decision on this project planning. Then after, this test will come to an end and it is a light showing the quantity of excavated dirt more than twice of the Suy Aye Canal.

Moreover, the real outcome will be extremely successful for the agricultural sector, generating employment for the citizens and creating management system with LAO, Cambodia has been increasingly grown extremely depending on agricultural and tourism sector. Besides these it faces many challenges because it is very hard to compete with neighboring countries.

Talking about eventually destruction for either national or international, the national project doesn’t affect the hydropower located at Kirirum, agricultural dike of Kork Mlech, agricultural dike of Compong Toul, in particular, it brings out the alluvial soil to fill in the area of Sre Ambel and both sides of the course of Kaoung River until the sea. We are not afraid of flood taking place in Phnom Penh, it helps reduce the weight of the old issue referred to contaminated water which is making threats to the Phnom Penh Municipality; especially, it helps reduce the state of emergency of flood in nation-wide because the quantity of current of water has seven thousand million cubic meter in accordance with the theory of Engineer, Mr. TAN Kim Huan. The water of Mekong River and rainwater flow into the sea in one way along Mekong River, so it is not favorable to flow fast caused by flood everywhere in the country.

Therefore, we need to be excavated the canal as an aid. Even as the international as follows: Lao, Vietnam, Thailand and other countries in the region could not be affected its country benefits. This project planning is really bringing out the benefits for both national and international as addressed above. The unique positive achievement will be appeared in between 25 to 30 years in this century relying on the good will of the Royal Government of Cambodia.

Confirmation on navigation system, hereafter referred as possibility of moving back and forth on this two working sites, at the point of Prek Muk Compoul, navigations must turn down straight to Prek Phnov (Brachum Piam), point 1290.02-484.02, even up or down because at the point of Muk Compoul above does not have plan yet in giving permission for ship enters into the Mekong River. However, small-big boat, small motor-driven boat can be accessible.

Working Site 8, provide additional study on the test of Muk Compoul-Prek Koy. If it is delayed at working site of Prek Thnout River, it must be fully committed to work on Prek Muk Compoul Site until the bank of Mekong River, point 1310.04-500.04, .....................meter height, during the dry season, at the point of joining  harbor (Maot Piam) has 24-meter depth, ..................meter width, this location needs to be built 300-meter curve bridge or use ferry, working site has 31-kilometer distance, at the head of the canal has..................meter depth, .................meter width, during the rainy season, the water goes up beyond the edge of the canal in..................meter, during the dry season, it consists of water on the bottom of the canal in .................meter, the course of the canal crosses the national road No. 6 at the point of Compong Brasat, point 1310.02-496.02, it makes a joining system with Prek Koy at the point above, the bottom of the canal must be equal to the bottom of the Mekong River, measurement made on March 27, 2007.

To make it comfortable for an extra excavation along the course of the canal, we need to build the dike of the canal in some locations, while the other locations let the water flows through it, such as point 1294.05-490.03, 1302.03-492.06, 130.04-494.03. Having sufficient money, we need to build the bridge in these points and it is not necessary to take the excavated dirt out of the working site, just fill in both sides of the canal to reduce both expenses and make it possible for citizens in housing.

However, the working site 8 is just only an explanation. This site is considered as the final stage. Following the absolute outcome clarified on the strength of the canal to take advantage of a sufficient experience, then after we need to study additionally how the middle-class ship can be used as planned. On the other hand, we keep up the time free for a while so that we are aware of general reaction because the Mekong River belongs to the international and to know a discrepancy of common nature as well as the agricultural sector on the plain of the nation-wide. (Moreover, we will have an independent seaport, no need to go across the Vietnam’s seaport.

Talking a little bit more about the flood at Rattanakiri province just happened in the past 20 years showing that before 1972, this area has never been flooded like at the present time. This flood was caused by the dike of Vietnam that obstructs the water flow of Sre Pork River which causes much destruction. This problem can be solved as the result of canal excavation (See the article published in February 2002, its titles are:  Scientific Irrigation of Flood Reduction Science of Tonle Sap Lake Care, Science of Agricultural Improvement.

The new question asked is marching with the question from natural knowledge which is the heaviest burden of student need to find out by all means or wait for a total dependent on the canal request because our country is higher than the surface of the sea. Please look back to Bangladesh which is affected by flood every year because those areas are almost equal to the surface of the sea.

Besides this, there would be a problem appeared, primarily, on the international project in building the dike of the hydropower along Mekong River. Right now, even we don’t know yet how many will be, in which country, in anywhere, but we are entirely convinced that this project will be implemented in the future. Addressing about this issue, we just want to let citizens know beforehand the events that will be taking place.

By the way, like dilemma resulting from Sre Pork without knowing before, illegal logging which caused flood in 2006. Many hydropower will be built in the future: (1) Eventually, Cambodia will have received good-bad result; it depends on detail study on this project as addressed above. Does the canal extensive excavation project should be implementing before those project planning? On the other hand, this project can help mutually supportive and complementary operations with Lao, Thailand and Vietnam.

(1) This term just only refers to the hydropower construction along Mekong River. It doesn’t mean the wide-ranging hydropower construction in each country.

The Movable Waterwheel or Movable Hydropower

Please show the figure of movable waterwheel or movable hydropower run by the power of the current of water flow which is a good way for the poor that are living along the creek, canal, or river. This movable waterwheel is easy to use for family and put it on the boat or floating raft in the point of current of water to let the dynamo spins around for the benefit of battery.

Its technical trait, at the point of water wing can be changeable or adjustable, that is, if you want the water wing goes deeper in water to have more power, just loosen the screw and push the water wing goes up and down you wish. Then after, turn a screw back tightly it is done or change the small-big size of the water wing.

Figure

 

 

Note: the water wing shapes like layer of banana is made of a piece of thin steel 1 mm, if you lack of it just use the one made of wood instead.

 

 

  • Piece or power shaft made of metal relying on the anvil to support the weight of the water wing, weight of water, and spin movement.

  • Drive-belt is made of artificial object or leather.

  • The length-width of water wing is in accordance with the power of the current of water.


DECORATIONS

  • Medal of France-Indochina Remembrance
  • Medal of National Defense with sash of the order of National Defense
  • Medal of Honer de l'ACADEMIE Carpentras-France for Development and International relations
  • Chairman and Founding member Vice -President of French -Cambodia Committee of Nice -France

Nice, February 2002
N 29, Rue Armédée VII, 06300 Nice France
Villa 143, Tuol Tachann Road Prek Eng commune N° 140, Bd Norodom, Phnom Penh

Villa 143, Tuol Tachann Road Prek Eng commune
N° 140, Norodom Blv, Phnom Penh


His Majesty Preah Bat Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk

The King of The Kingdom of Cambodia

To:

  • His Royal Highness Samdech Krom Preah Norodom Ranariddh
  • His Excellency Samdech Hun Sen, Second Prime Minister

Dear Excellencies:

I have received a letter dated January 10th from Mr. NY Leng suggesting that Stung Prek Tnout river should be extended as far as the sea by digging through Kaong Sre Ambel.

I would like to forward the above said letter to your Excellencies for your high consideration. Please accept, Excellencies, the assurance of my highest consideration.

Signature

Norodom Sihanouk

Phnom Penh February 13th 1997

(Royal message of His Majesty Preah Bat Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk, the King of the Kingdom of Cambodia, commenting on the first study-research work submitted on January 20th 1997. Un-official translation)


 

 

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